Whole plant, especially the seeds.3,4
Supportive treatment. Multiple-dose activated charcoal therapy has been used for gastrointestinal decontamination in cardiac glycoside poisoning, and digoxin-specific antibody has been used as an antidote.9,10
Lianas or sarmentose shrubs, up to 4.5 m tall, with clear or yellowish latex. Branches dark grey, densely lenticellate, branchlets reddish brown. Leaves opposite; leaf blades 3–10 × 1.5–5 cm. Cymes 3–15‑flowered. Corolla yellow, lobes with red basal spots adaxially, up to 10 cm long, lobes apex caudate to filiform. Follicles 9–15 × 2–3.5 cm, woody, divergent at an angle 180–250°. Seeds 1.3–2 cm long, fusiform, with coma.11
Highly toxic; use with caution. Uses in TCM—roots, or branches and leaves: dispel wind-dampness, unblock the meridian and collateral vessels, expel toxin and heal furuncles, kill parasites, relieve itching, relieve pain; seeds: dispel wind and unblock the collaterals, remove toxin and kill parasites. For external use only.2,12,13
In 2015, a middle-aged man collected a fruit of S. divaricatus from the countryside, soaked the skin of the fruit in wine and applied it topically to treat a skin condition. He presented with dizziness and bradycardia. He recovered completely. The serum digoxin immunoassay result was weakly positive.
Divaricoside and divostroside can be detected by NMR. Strophanthins can be detected by LC-MS/MS.14,15